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About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. f 6 700830 PREFACE This work cootaiiia a Grammar and complete Dictionary of the Itmgui^e of Bfate, New Hebrides, which is a typical spedme Q of the Oceanic languages which are spoken by fifty millions, or one-thirtieth, of the human race in islaods of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, extending over two hondred degrees of longitude. 9 CHAPTER III Tn UTBBAUSH AMD Intekhal Vowwl Cs Aiiei 84 CHAPTER IV Ii VLBXiox Ai.
To all living and working among these fifty milliona i» PREFACE of people, miaaiooariea, Oovemment officials, and como K cial men, it should be of practical use as helping to that thorough knowledge of the speech and character of the natives which means the power of dealing sympathetically and wisely with them to the advantage of all concerned. Sent from Uelboo TQe aa a missionary of the Presbytorian Churoh of Vietoria to the New Hebrides, and settled at Havannab Harboar, E&te, in the year 1872, it became his duty to Btady and acquire the speech of the natives, and to get a tboroo^ knowledge of their mental life, religion and social ot]gatu2atio D.
This last consideration, the author specially commends to th« various Governments that now have possessions, and 80 have taken up ' the white man's burden ' in Oceania- France, Gei Tuany, Holland, United States of America, well as our own United Kingdom and her great self'; governing Dependencies in Australasia. As these people, like the other New Hebrideans, were cannibal savages, without a written lang Tuge, and inclined to be unfriendly, this was found to be no easy task.
Efate is to be the seat of government under the new Anglo-French Convention respecting the New Hebrides. ■ The diphthongs : at |a;), and e, i, a ; au (aw), and 6, u, ^^| 9.
Commercially and linguistically as well as geographically (see the map), it is the central island of the group, and no better standpoint could be chosen from which to study the languages in the other islands that extend from it southwards and north- wards- And perhaps no better could be chosen from which to make such a study of the languages of the whole Oceanic family — Itlelanesian, Polynesian, Malayan, and Malagasy— INTfi ODUCTION tha D th&t of wbieh the resolt is set forth a^ briefly a^ po Bsible in the following pages. The Oceanic sounds : the vowels a, e, i, o, a, as in Italian: in Efatese & is often pronounced like 6, 1, or ii ; thus banattt, or banolu, is often pronounced blnoli, which might as well bo written hlnot U The long sounds of a, e, i, u, as in father, fate, feet, moon, are very different. The diphthongs are ai, sometimes written ei, and au : ai passes into e, or i, or a, as In i bai, or i bi sel? ' / taai, or t 6c, 'he comes'; t bai, or i ba se, or i be job ? laa, ' the sun ' (not written la' b, in the Efatese of this work (and To.), represents both b and p, and when aspirated becomes f which I'spresents both v and f : ' C.8.
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A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. dialects except Hawaiian in which its place is taken by n, and Marqueean in which, according to Tregear,' ita place is taken by k. It is a bridge between the two classes like the Latin QV, a guttural followed by a labial semivowel forming a transition from guttural to labial ; thus : ' Sanskrit Avs, Lat. Usually tboee who have reduced the Island dialects to writing haver aeted on the right principle of expressing one Mmnd by one character, and if all had used the same character for the same sound nothingwould need to be said.
Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Stit-A 14 OCEANIC LANGUAGES serie B, and Ray's list of New Hebrides words; for the Sol. Oi-di- narily in Efatese it is a modification of k, sometimes of n, more rarely of m, B : the guttural-labial sound symbolized by Ip is that sym- bolized by q in M. Butasthis b not the case, and to use the same character for entirely different sounds would in the present work be confusing and apt to mislead, such ehaiacters have to be as far as possible transcribed into the alphabet above given.
Of the eonaiderable camber of Sanskrit words introduced into the Ua Uyan, probably about the beginning of the Christian er«, not a trace ia to be found in the Efatese.
And of the Uo Dgol element of blood iu Malaysia, not a trace is dis- ooverable among the Efatese people. C- the forefathers of the Oceanic- spaaking race passed from the Semitic area (see the map) into and settled in the Oceanic world, the question must remain unanswered till Oiientalis U who are experts in the history of the development of the Semitic race within that area oan give the neceasai'y information. Words whose initial radical was one of the weak letters, or quiescents, § 3, were apt to drop the first syllable, as j Tr', 'to know,' jn, rijn.